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★★★LFS Manual 驾驶技巧讲解★★★

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LFS初级驾照

 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-19 16:01:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 SRFC 于 2016-9-14 14:48 编辑

花了几个小时翻译了官网上LFS手册中的驾驶技巧部分。这些内容历经很多外国玩家不断编辑补充,大部分都是比较精华的,新手和高手都可以看看吧。省去了旗语部分,因为论坛里已经有了。

水平有限,出现错误在所难免,希望大家能够指正,谢谢!


                               
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LFS手册英文完全版本在线观看地址:http://en.lfsmanual.net/wiki/Main_Page
推荐愿意读英文的兄弟姐妹们都去看看,内容十分广泛详细。对各种车型的介绍、对各条赛道的描述都非常有趣。还包括了规则、设置、调教、制作场地、车皮、甚至渲染作图等等,可以说是相当完整的游戏说明书。

Simple Driving Tips
简单的驾驶技巧提示

Use your brakes in good time when you are approaching a corner. It is in fact faster to take a corner at a safe speed, rather than braking late and hard (which could cause you to run off the track or run wide, off the racing line).
当你接近一个弯角时,在适当的时机使用刹车。事实上,以安全的速度通过一个弯角往往比延迟并大力刹车要快(因为这种刹车可能使你冲出赛道或者偏离最佳路线而走大了)。

Hard braking also causes flat spots to occur on your tyres, significantly reducing grip and possibly leading to blowouts. Also avoid driving on grass and dirt, as this also reduces grip.
大力刹车还会磨平你的部分轮胎,这将大大降低抓地力,还有可能导致暴胎。你也得避免开上草地或者土地,这样同样会降低抓地力。
Be gentle with your throttle when you are driving a rear wheel drive car. Applying too much throttle too quickly will cause you to spin out when you exit corners.
开后驱车的时候,温柔地对待油门。出弯时踩油太多太快会使车子旋转。

Be very careful in the first corner of the race, especially when starting from the back. You will probably have to brake much earlier than you are used to, because of cars piling up in front of you. The first turn is the most dangerous one in a race, be careful, don't ruin your or (even worse) the race of others. Of course this also applies for all other corners where heavy braking is needed - just take a mental note, that for every car in front of you, you have to start braking a bit earlier than usual.
比赛中的第一个弯角需要格外小心,尤其当你从后排起步时。因为前方车辆拥挤,你也许得比平时早很多刹车。第一个弯角是最危险的,小心再小心,不要毁了自己甚至是别人的比赛。当然,这一点适用于所有需要大力刹车的弯角。牢牢记住这一点:前方有车的时候,你都得比通常早一些刹车。

Practise makes perfect. Drivers who win races do so because they put in the time and effort into learning the track and their cars.
熟能生巧。赛车高手都投入了大量时间和经历去学习赛道以及赛车。

Online Racing Etiquette
在线赛车礼仪


Don't spam: There is no need to repeat a message over and over. Other racers will be annoyed by you. It's rude and there is simply no use in doing that. Even if you are angry or you have the right to be angry, never spam!
不要刷屏。你没有必要反复发送同一条信息。其他车手会对你感到厌烦。这种行为是无礼的而且不会有任何作用。即使你很生气,或者你有权力生气,也绝对不要刷屏。

If you get BLUE FLAG displayed on the screen, it means a player who is one or more laps ahead of you is attempting to pass. You must let this player past you without competing with him or unduly hindering his progress. It is debatable whether or not to leave the racing line, that is your choice. The biggest thing is Be Predictable. Don't make any sudden maneuvers, don't suddenly dive out of the racing line when the faster car is right behind you and already committed to pass, don't suddenly dive out of your line on the straight and jam on the brakes. If you're going to leave the racing line, do so smoothly, and so that the car behind can see what you're doing. Otherwise, if you're going to stick to the racing line, make sure the racer behind can see that you're keeping your line. Bottom line is, the driver behind is still passing, so it's his prerogative to pass cleanly, but it is the other driver's responsibility not to compete with the lapping driver, and not to intentionally prevent a pass.
看到屏幕上出现篮旗,意味着有一位领先你一圈或者一圈以上的车手正试图超越。你必须让他超越你,而不能与他竞争或是做不恰当的阻挡。是否让出赛车线是有争议的,你可以自己选择。最重要的一点是:让别人能够预见到你的行动。不要做任何突然的动作。不要在身后的车手已经紧贴你并且决定超越的时候突然偏离自己的最佳路线,也不要在直线上突然让出路线或者刹车阻碍后车。如果你打算让出路线,应该平缓地行动,让后车能够看出你的意图。另一种情况下,如果你打算坚守自己的路线,就要确保后车明白你的想法。底线是:后车运用他超车的特权能够干净地超越你。你的责任是不与套你圈的车手竞争,不有意阻挡他的超越。

More Driving Tips
更多驾驶技巧
by Gentlefoot

Speed comes from consistency
速度来自稳定性

It’s all very well pushing to the absolute limit every lap, going off in 3 out of 4 and setting a fast time on the 1 clean lap. However, this will not help you in a race where one off can cost you a win. Also, it will make it very difficult to improve and get really fast.
每圈都开到极限,4圈里有3圈失误,但有一圈作出好成绩,这样很好。但是在比赛中,一个弯角的失误就会使你失去胜利。同时,这种极限的做法将加大你改进自己并真正快起来的难度。

The first time I lap a new circuit I’ll do the whole thing in say 2nd gear. That way I get a good look at all the potential reference points around the track and I get a feel for the flow. Then I begin to build up speed. I find I can learn a track in just a few laps taking this approach.
我尝试一条新赛道的时候,会用2档开完一圈。这样我能够好好看清赛道上所有潜在的有价值的地方,并对整个流程有所感觉。然后我会开始加速。用这个方法,我在几圈之内就可以学习一条新赛道了。

Also, if you keep going off in say turn 3, then you’ll never know what the entry to turn 4 will be like at full speed. I have mates who play and go off at the same corner over and over again. When they finally make it through the corner, they crash at the next one!
比方说,如果你一直在3号弯偏离路线,你就永远不会知道如何以全速进入4号弯。我有些朋友在同一个弯角不断地冲出路线,当他们最终通过时,又在下一个弯撞了!

In addition, once you get to within say 5 seconds of the WR, then you’ll know which corners you can push a little harder on to save time and which you are pretty much on the money.
另外,一旦你能够跑到只落后世界纪录5秒,你就能知道你可以在哪些弯角再快一点,而哪些弯角已经做得很不错了。

Consistency is an absolute must when adjusting your setups. When I’m creating setups I JUST try to be consistent so that any changes show up in the time. If I was pushing 99% then a fast bit here and mistake there makes lap time comparison meaningless.
在做调教的时候,连续的稳定性是必须的。我在做调教的时候力图稳定,这样任何变化都能够及时显现。如果我把自己推到99%的极限,那么也许这里快一点,那里出点错,圈速的比较就变得毫无意义了。

AnalyzeForSpeed
速度分析器


This tool is fantastic. When you watch WRs and can’t work out how they are getting through corners at certain speeds, this tool can help. You can see at any moment in a lap speed, throttle/brake position, steering angle and track position. It may look at first glance as tho you are doing the same thing but use AnalyzeForSpeed and you will see how completely different WR holders drive to you.
这个工具棒极了。 看世界记录回放时,你也许不明白为什么他们能以那样的速度通过弯角,这个工具会给你帮助。你可以看到一圈中任何时刻的速度,油门/刹车的位置,方向盘的角度和赛道上的位置。一开始看上去你是在干和以前同样的事,但是使用这个工具你会彻底了解世界纪录保持者和你之间的不同。

Corner Entry
攻弯
Use every inch of space on corner entry. This opens up the radius of the turn for you so the turn is less tight. Even when you think you are using all the track you probably are not. AnalyzeForSpeed has an uncanny knack of proving this to you.
用尽每一寸空间进弯。这会加大你过弯的半径,相对减小弯道的曲度。即使你认为自己已经用尽赛道的宽度了,你很可能还没有。这个软件会用不寻常的方式证明这一点。

As you are turning toward the apex, you need to be above the ideal corner speed slightly, scrubbing it off as you get to the apex. If you turn in at the required corner speed, you will be shedding time to the fast guys who will be carrying extra speed to the apex I guarantee it. This is one of the hardest skills to master in LFS and in my view what separates the ‘aliens’ (I hate that term) from the rest of us. To do this you will need to learn how to trail brake while keeping some throttle on. Make sure your pedals are set with separate axis.
你开始转向弯心的时间,需要比理想过弯速度稍高,在达到弯心的过程中,摩擦力使你减速。如果做不到这一点,你就会被好的车手利用这段时间中获得的额外速度抛离。这是LFS中最难的一个技巧,也是那些外星人和我们的分野。要做到这一点,你需要学习在逐渐放开刹车的同时保持一点油门。首先要保证你的油门和刹车踏板是双轴的。

Braking
刹车
Many beginners do not down-change early enough when braking. This makes a big difference in braking areas after long straights into slow corners. It can reduce your braking distance by as much as 10 metres. This will save you 1-2 tenths in lap time. It can also help you when attempting a pass on corner entry or defending a pass from a driver behind.
很多初学者在刹车时降档不够早。当由长直路进入慢弯时,这会造成刹车区域的很大不同。做得好的话,你可以缩短10m的刹车距离,这意味着提高圈速0.1-0.2秒。这一点对你试图在入弯时超越别人或者防止被超时都是有用的。

The down change needs to occur at the precise moment when the speed is reduced to a point where the wheels will not lock as you enter the gear below. Lock up and your braking distance will increase dramatically and you will ruin your tyres.
降档的时机需要十分精确。这就是:当你的速度降低到换入下一档位也恰好不会使轮胎抱死时。如果轮胎抱死,你的刹车距离会急剧增加,轮胎也会受损。

In many cars you can down change at the same moment of even just before you hit the brakes. This depends on the revs in current gear, gear ratios and the rate at which the car can reduce speed.
在很多车型上,你踩下刹车的同时就可以降档了。这取决于当前档位的发动机转速,齿轮比和赛车减速的最大速率。

Tyres
轮胎
Look after them – don’t lock them in braking and apply the absolute minimum steering angle required. If the tyres are making loads of noise you have applied too much lock. This will dramatically increase your tyre temps and mean you have to run less aggressive camber and pressures to make them last the race. This will lose you time.
好好照顾它们。不要在刹车时抱死,尽量少打方向。如果轮胎发出很多噪音,那意味已经锁死了。这会使胎温剧增,你必须调小轮胎倾角和压力,使它们能够完成比赛。这些调整会使你损失时间。

Important Corners
重要弯角
Corners before long straights are the most important on any circuit. This is because for every mph extra you carry through the corner, you carry an extra mph all the way down the straight until you hit the brakes.
长直路之前的弯角是最重要的。因为你在过弯时的每一英里的优势,都会被带到直路上,一直到你踩刹车为止。

Fast corners before long straights are even more important than slow corners before straights because at higher speeds the car accelerates more slowly, so the extra mph you carry has a greater affect.
长直路之前的高速弯角是重中之重,比低速弯更重要。因为在高速下赛车的加速能力相对较弱,在弯道每快一点都会产生更大的影响。

For corners before long straights you can afford to lose some time on entry if it means you will come out faster. Generally this means apex slightly further round the corner than the mid point. The longer the straight, the later the apex although on fast corners the apex point is pretty much in the middle because you must carry speed through fast corners for reasons mentioned above.
在进入长直路之前的弯角时,为了确保出弯更快,你可以稍微降低进弯的速度。通常这意味着实际的弯心在弯道的中点之后一些。直路越长,弯心越靠后。不过在高速弯角,弯心一般都正好在弯道的中点,因为你要在弯道保持速度(原因已经在上面讲过了)。

Set your car up for the most important corners on a track and you should be able to put in some fast times.
根据赛道上最重要的弯道调整你的赛车,你就能获得更快的圈速。

Power on Early
尽早加速
Ever wondered why sometimes it seems as though someone is faster down the straight than you? Its probably because they got their foot on the accelerator a fraction a a second before you.
有没有因为别人在直路上比你快而感到疑惑过?这很可能是因为他们踩下油门的时间比你早了一点点。

Concentrate on getting back on full power as early in a corner as possible (just before the apex if possible, at the very latest, just after the apex). Think about this when you are driving and you will knock seconds off your lap times.
在弯道中,集中注意力在尽早踩尽油门上(如果可能,刚到弯心就这样做,至少也要在一过弯心就这样做)。驾驶时注意这个问题会提高你的圈速。

Using AnalyzeForSpeed you can see when the WR holders are getting on the power and compare that to your own best laps. Its amazing how early the fastest drivers get back on full throttle.
使用速度分析器,你能知道世界纪录保持者是何时踩油的,并且与自己的最好表现比较。那些好的车手踩油门的时机早得令人惊讶。

Splits
计时点
Know you’re split times so you know if you were quick or slow when you took a particular line through a section. Know the WR splits too so you know which sections you need to make up most time in.
了解自己在计时点的时间,你就了解了自己通过某一部分特定路线时的快慢。了解世界纪录的计时点时间,你将知道自己需要在哪一段投入最多的精力。

Following Faster Racers
跟随快车
Even watching a replay of the WR is not the same as actually following a guy who is faster then you and emulating his/her lines. Sometimes following someone will show you a line you hadn’t noticed in a replay. This helped me massively on the final turn at AS Club.
观看世界纪录回放和在实际中跟随一位比你更快的车手是不同的。跟随时你可以模仿他的路线,有时候你能够发现在回放里没有注意到的路线。在AS Club赛道的最后一个弯角,我就从别人哪里获得了很大的帮助。

This assumes you are quick enough to keep up for at least part of a lap.
要做到这一点你至少要在赛道的某一段跟得上别人。

Emulating WRs
模仿世界记录
Don’t watch a WR, see that the driver takes T1 at 87mph and then try and take T1 at 87mph, you will go off. Try to aim for a few mph less and build from there. You will get a feel for the amount of lock, trail braking, and throttle control by doing this. With practice you may then be able to match the WR speed through a particular corner.
在看世界纪录回放时,不要试图以和世界记录保持者同样的速度过弯,你只会冲出赛道。试着以一个更低的速度为目标,然后改进。通过模仿,你会积累一定数量的关于锁死、逐渐释放刹车和油门控制的感觉。不断练习,你也许能够以和世界纪录中相同的速度通过某个弯角。



[ 本帖最后由 visualff 于 2006-12-20 13:06 编辑 ]

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LFS初级驾照

 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-19 16:02:25 | 显示全部楼层
Surviving Turn One
挺过第一个弯角

by Gunn

Everybody loves a close race, nobody loves being wiped out in the first corner. To win a race you must at least finish the race and all can be lost in the first hot seconds if care is not taken. Let's take a brief look at some important considerations when a race starts and a swarm of cars goes thundering towards turn 1.
每个人都喜欢接近的比赛,没人喜欢在第一个弯角就出局了。想要赢得比赛,你至少得完成赛程。如果在争夺激烈的时候不够小心,一秒钟就会葬送整场比赛。让我们来简略的看一下比赛开始,一大群赛车蜂拥向第一个弯角时最需要考虑的问题。

When the lights go green there is always going to be a mad dash for the first corner, all drivers want to make the best start they can.
Rarely will all cars launch from the line evenly, a car in front of you may be slow getting away.
绿灯亮起,大家都全力冲向第一个弯角,所有人都希望有最佳的起步。可是很少会是所有赛车都以同样的速度出发,你前面的车也许起步稍慢。

Very few (and perhaps none) of the drivers will have a perfect line into the first few corners as all cars jostle for position and get settled.
Everybody's tyres are cold, grip levels are low.
很少有车手能够在前几个弯角拥有完美的路线。因为所有的赛车都拥挤在一起争夺位置。每个人的轮胎都是冷的,抓地力都很差。

Most drivers would now have opponents close by them but sitting in their blind spot, requiring a head turn to check their actual positions.
The greatest potential for lag in LFS is when a large field of cars is bunched up together.
大多数车手身边都会有很接近的对手,而且对手处于盲区中。这时需要转头才能看清自己实际的位置。在LFS里,很多车挤成一堆时,网络延时发生的可能性最大。

If there is ever a recipe for a multi-car pile up, Turn One (T1) of almost any race track is the mixing bowl and a bunch of racers hungry for victory are the ingredients. Let's take a look at and discuss ways to avoid T1 pile-ups and increase your chances of finishing the race in one piece so you can enjoy your victory cake.
把多车堆挤比喻成药方的话,赛道上的第一个弯角就是药碗,一大堆渴望胜利的车手就是药材。让我们讨论一下解决第一个弯角拥挤的方法,增加你完成比赛的几率,从而享受胜利的喜悦。

When the lights go green, apply the throttle smoothly (don't stomp) and try to get away cleanly with as little wheelspin as possible.
绿灯亮起的时候,平缓的踩下油门,尽量避免轮胎打滑。

This is a good time to quickly glance left and right to see where your nearest rivals are and see how well they have launched from the start. You now have a better idea of your relative positions and are less likely to end someone's race through a poorly-timed move.
起步时是迅速观察左右离你最近的对手的最佳时机。你可以观察他们起步的状态,了解自己的相对位置,拥有更好的生存机会。

It is best not to throw your car into T1 with wild abandon, if someone is beside you entering the turn you should leave them room to corner, you want to avoid car-to-car contact. Better for both of you to corner carefully than to cause a 6 car pile-up.
最好不要以放任一切的态度冲进第一个弯角。如果身边有车手,应该给他们留下入弯的空间。你要避免赛车之间的碰触。小心的入弯对大家都好,胜于引起多车事故。

Be prepared to back off or brake, don't rely on luck to get you through. Be aware that other cars are prone to error in these first few turns and get ready to evade an accident ahead.
准备好避让和刹车。别把通过的可能性寄托在运气上。小心其它赛车可能在开始的一些弯角出错,准备好规避前方的事故。

Cars in front may brake heavily, avoid contact. Shunting the current world champion out of the race in the first ten seconds is a rather embarassing way to end your (and his) event or championship. Public races should be treated the same way. It is a common error that we have all made or will make early in our training and, as you will find out, it is the worst way to be taken out of a race. No matter if it's the first or last corner of a race be very, very wary of rear-ending another car.
前方的赛车可能会大力刹车,你要避免接触。在比赛的头十秒内就让“现世界冠军”退赛对你来讲是很尴尬的。普通的赛车手也一样。这是我们在训练的早期都犯过的错误。你会发现,这是被逐出比赛的最糟糕的办法。无论是第一弯还是 最后一弯,小心小心再小心避免追尾。

Drafting/Slipstreaming
尾流
by Gunn
As a car races forwards it punches a hole in the air as it goes along, and after the car has gone past the displaced air rushes in to fill the gap.
当一辆车向前行驶时,在空气中冲出一个空洞。在这辆车的身后,被挤开了的空气快速地填补这个空隙。

If you travel very close to the car in front you will notice that you can go faster than he is able to. This is known as drafting or slipstreaming. The leading car disturbs the air and does all of the work, the following car (travelling in a nice pocket with almost no wind resistance) is not inhibited and can build up speed faster than normally possible. The trailing car "gets a tow" from the car in front.
如果你离前车很近,你会发现你可以比他开得更快。这被称为尾流。前车驱赶走了空气,后车在几乎没有空气阻力的空洞里行驶,从而可能获得比平常更快的速度。后车就像是被前车拖着走。

It is easy to see how drafting could be used to overtake your opponents and indeed it is a much-used overtaking technique. In some cases two cars may be so well matched that the only chance the trailing driver has to overtake is by drafting on a long straight. So obviously drafting has real benefits, but also there are hazards.
很容易理解如何利用尾流超越对手,这确实是个常用的超越技巧。有时候两车是如此接近,后车超越前车的唯一机会就是在长直路上利用尾流。所以很明显尾流确实有益,但是它同时也有害处。

Benefits
益处
Your car may reach a higher top speed by drafting (once you pull out of the draft the wind resistance will steadily pull your speed back to the normal maximum for your setup. However your gear ratios and final drive will ultimately effect how well your car can take advantage of drafting).
通过尾流赛车可以达到更高的急速。
一旦你脱离了尾流,空气阻力会使你回复到原来的最高速度,你的齿轮比最终会影响你利用尾流的能力。

Drafting gives you a temporary and short-lived opportunity to gain position, but timing is important. Sometimes drafting may be the only safe way past your rival.
尾流给了你一个短暂的机会去超车,时机非常重要。有时候尾流是超车的唯一安全的方式。

Drafting can reduce lap times during a race and may have a minimal fuel-saving benefit.
尾流可以提高圈速,也许还有一点点节省燃油的功效。

Risks
风险
Braking is not as effective when travelling in another car's slipstream. Not only are you perhaps travelling faster than normal when you reach your braking zone but you have less resistance and slowing down will not be as abrupt as usual. The potential to shunt the leading car is great, and racers should always be prepared to adjust their braking to suit the situation.
处在前车的尾流中时,刹车不再那么有效。不但你到达刹车点时的速度可能比平时更高,而且你的空气阻力更小,减速能力比平时弱。需要躲避前车的可能性很大,车手应该时刻准备调整刹车来适应这种情况。

Shunting while travelling at full speed is also a risk. If you are very close behind the leading car then your speed may incease very rapidly in a short time. You don't want to shunt the other racer, you'll either damage both cars or even worse you may propel him forward and increase his lead!
在全速行驶时做躲闪也是有风险的。如果你非常靠近前车,你的速度也许增加的非常快。你不会想撞上别人,你不想同归于尽,你更不想把别人向前推以至于他领先的更多!

Cornering in the slipstream can be very tricky. Aerodynamic downforce that is generated by some types of cars (GTR, FOX, FO8) can be affected when there is no air to create downforce on the wings or spoilers. Coupled with your extra speed when drafting this can cause spin-outs in fast curves and can affect your braking too.
在尾流下入弯会变得非常棘手。有些车(GTR,FOX,FO8等)的下压力会受到印象。伴随高速度而来的可能是在高速弯角中打转,或者是刹车受到影响。

Considerations
注意事项
Should I draft other cars in a race?
Absolutely, but be wary of contact and be ready to brake earlier then usual when approaching corners or slower drivers.
我是否应该利用尾流?
绝对应该。但是要小心地避免接触,在接近弯角或慢车时准备提前刹车。

Is drafting a sure way to overtake an opponent?
No. Often the benefit gained from drafting is not enough to make the pass. If you get close to the leading car early on to the straight then you have a real chance of winning the position, but be wary of jumping into the slipstream late, make sure you have enough room to carry out your plans.
利用尾流是超越对手的绝对机会么?
不。从尾流中得到的好处常常不够完成超越。如果你在刚进直道时就很接近前车,那么你确实有机会超越。但是如果进入尾流的时间迟了,那么你要小心,确保有足够的时间超越。

What do I do if another car is drafting me?
If on a straight, hold your line but do not swerve or block, if you get overtaken, then that's motor racing, set yourself up for a well-timed attack further up the track or on the next lap and fight back when you have a real chance of making it happen.
别的车跟在我的尾流中时,我怎么办?
如果是在直道上,保持自己的路线,不要突然转向或者阻挡。如果你被超了,这就是赛车,准备在接下来的赛道中或者下一圈发动适时的攻击吧。在真正握有机会的时候再还击。

If approaching a corner you can take a defensive line to make overtaking more difficult, but swerving is still a no-no. You should only ever make one defensive movement in response to an attack.
Absolutely do not brake earlier than usual if you can help it. Remember that the drafting car will brake with difficulty.
在接近弯角的时候你可以采用防守路线让对手的超越变得更加困难,但是突然变向仍旧是不可以的。针对对手的攻击,你只可以做一个防守动作。
绝对不要提前刹车。记住吃你尾流的车子刹车比较困难。


[ 本帖最后由 visualff 于 2006-12-19 17:28 编辑 ]

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-19 16:02:59 | 显示全部楼层
Race Driving Basic
基本赛车驾驶技巧


Oversteer & Understeer
转向过度与转向不足

Oversteer in the “textbook” sense is the difference between cornering stiffness at front and rear, taking into account tyre characteristics, geometries, bush rates, etc, etc. By this definition, understeer and oversteer are independent of vehicle path or speed - they are purely vehicle properties.
转向过度在教科书中是指前后轮转向刚度的不同,需要考虑到轮胎的特性,几何学,衬套比率等。根据这个定义,转向不足与转向过度独立于车辆的路径与速度-它们纯粹是车辆的特性。

Oversteer or its counterpart understeer is not the difference (or should it be the ratio of the two?) between cornering stiffness front and rear but it is a dynamic trajectory property caused by cornering stiffness. But cornering stiffness are not just static properties influenced by the factors given above. There are more factors that influence cornering stiffness: body roll, roll stiffness front and rear, load transfer, wheel camber change, roll steer (front and rear) and torque applied to the driving wheels. The tyre characteristics are speed and load dependent too. From this, it follows that driving characteristics of a car cannot be defined as being just over or understeering. At every speed and trajectory curvature (1/radius) one can say it is understeering, neutral or oversteering for those conditions. So the over/understeering character is a complex one.
在这里,转向过度/不足不是指前后轮转向刚度的不同,而是指由转向刚度引起的动态循迹特性。但是转向刚度不是一个仅仅由上文给出的几个因素影响的静态特性。以下这些因素都会影响到转向刚度:车身侧倾,前后防滚杆的硬度,负荷转移,轮胎倾角,前后轧辊刚性和传送到驱动轮的扭矩。轮胎的特性还和速度和负荷有关。由此,车辆的驾驶特征不能被简单定义为转向过度或是转向不足。在每个不同的速度和路线曲率条件下,车辆表现出转向过度,中性或是转向不足。所以转向过度/不足特性是联系在一起的。

In the everyday road car a compromise is sought to make the car responsive to the steering wheel and stable at the same time. From here follows the success story of the FWD concept (understeering). For a sports car that is quick (not the same as fast) and provides driver fun, a different concept is needed: mid-engined, rear wheel drive (initial slight understeer changing to oversteer by applying engine torque - power oversteer/steering with the throttle).
在日常使用的车辆上,寻求的是同时保持车辆对方向盘的相应和车辆的稳定。前轮驱动(转向不足)概念的成功就在于此。对于提供高速和驾驶乐趣的跑车来说,需要一个不同的概念:中置引擎,后轮驱动(初始状态下的轻微的转向不足在被施加了引擎的扭矩之后变为转向过度)。

Perhaps it is useful to mention the definition of over and understeer as used by the scientists who perform research in vehicle behaviour? Suppose you are running a car at a constant speed with a constant curvature (the path is a circle then), if you then keep the steering wheel in the same position (angle) and increase the car speed gradually, then if the car wants to run on a circle with a smaller radius the car is said to be oversteering, if it remains on the same radius it is neutral and if the car goes to a wider circle it is understeering (for that speed and curvature!). The test can be done somewhat differently, again the car is running at a certain speed on a certain radius. Increase the speed and try to keep the car on the same radius. If you need to apply extra steering angle it is understeering, if you can keep the steering wheel in the same position it is neutral, if you can turn back the steering wheel somewhat it is oversteering.
这里我们提及科学家们在研究车辆行为时使用的转向过度/不足的定义,也许有用。假设你以固定的速度沿固定曲率的圆周驾驶车辆,然后你保持方向盘角度不变,逐渐增加车辆的速度,此时车辆行使的半径如果变小,称为转向过度(在这个特定的速度和曲率下!)。这个测试还有不同的做法。还是以固定的速度沿固定曲率的圆周驾驶车辆,增加车辆的速度,但还要保持行驶在圆周上。如果你需要增加方向盘的角度以完成这个动作,这就是转向不足。如果你不需要转动方向盘,这就是转向中性,如果你需要回打方向盘,这就是转向过度。

Oversteer is when the rear wheels are carving a larger arc than the front wheels or the intended line of the turn. Rear “slip angles” exceed those of the front tyres. This is often described as a “loose” condition, as the car feels like it may swap ends, or be “twitchy.” This condition can be caused by “power oversteer”, where you need to reduce power in order to bring the back end back into line.
当后轮划出的圆弧比前轮划出的圆弧更大,或者比预期的车辆转弯路线更大时,就是发生了转向过度。后轮的“滑动角度”超过了前轮。这常被描述为“不稳定”或者“突然”的状态,因为车子好像要调转头一样。“动力转向过度”可以引发这种状态,此时你需要减少动力以使车辆后部回到行使路线上。

Understeer is when the front wheels are carving a larger arc than the rear wheels. This is often described as “push” or “pushing” - as the front end feels like it is ploughing off of a corner. Further acceleration only compounds the push, as weight shifts back to the rear drive wheels, off of the front turning wheels, leading to a further lessening of the car’s ability to turn in. Understeer can be remedied by slight modulation in throttle to transfer weight forward to the front wheels, aiding their traction and ability to carve the turn. Many cars are designed to have a tendency to understeer. If the driver gets uncomfortable and “lifts” off the gas, that will cause the front end to tighten the curve - a relatively safer, and more predictable condition.
当前轮划出的圆弧比后轮划出的圆弧更大时,就是发生了转向不足。这常被称为“推头”-车头好像要冲出弯角的感觉。此时如果进一步加速,只会加剧推头,因为重量转移到后轮,前轮(转向轮)承受的重量减少,导致车辆的转向性能变差。可以通过微调油门来使重量转移到车头,帮助增加前轮的牵引力,使转向能力增强,修正转向不足。许多车辆被设计为倾向于转向不足。如果司机感觉到异常,松开油门,则车头会偏向弧线的内侧一些-这是一个更容易预测,相对更安全的状态。

Trail Braking
循迹刹车

Trail braking (a.k.a. ‘brake-turning’, braking while turning toward the apex of a corner) is another learning curve for you to climb sooner or later. However, learn trail braking slowly; if you’re used to road driving (where you’re taught to finish braking before turning into a corner) then you might find it tricky to learn the extra delicacy demanded by trail braking. In PU, the trade-off between brake pressure and steering input is hard to judge when you can’t feel the car turning and pitching through your body.
循迹刹车(也叫做刹车转向,就是一边驶向弯心一边刹车),是决定你能不能更快的一个因素。不过,你应该慢慢来学习循迹刹车。如果你习惯于在马路上驾驶(你被告知应该在转向之前的直路上完成刹车),那么你会发现循迹刹车需要格外精确的控制,十分棘手。如果你不能通过身体来感觉车辆的转向和倾斜,将很难判断刹车力度和方向之间的平衡。

What is trail braking? In essence, it means continuing to brake after having turned in for a corner. The further you progress into the corner, the more you turn the steering wheel and the more pressure you release from the brake pedal. Typically, the procedure goes like this: You are hurtling in a straight line toward a corner; You apply the brakes - fully - while still travelling in a straight line; At some point, you release a little pressure from the brakes and start to turn in; As you bend into the corner and approach the throttle application point, you progressively release the rest of the pressure from the brake.
什么是循迹刹车?本质上,它就是指在开始攻弯之后继续刹车。你越深入弯角,打的方向越大,施加的刹车力度越小。通常的过程是这样的:你在直路上向弯角疾驶;在直线上全力踩下刹车;你开始转向,同时稍稍释放一点刹车;当你转进弯角并接近送油点时,你逐渐释放剩余的刹车力度。

What’s the point of it? Trail braking helps you rotate the car into a corner by controlling the transfer of weight onto the front tyres, giving them more stick, and thus compensating for any understeering tendency the car would otherwise have. The alternative is: do all of your braking in a straight line, then release the brakes entirely, then turn in. The trouble with this technique is that when you release the brakes, weight - and therefore stick - will be removed from the front tyres, just when you need them to be loaded enough to turn the car into the corner. So - unless the car is set up to be driven like this - it will understeer away from the corner. This is typical behaviour for ‘street’ (aka massively understeering) cars that have been adapted for racing.
循迹刹车有何意义呢?它能够在你进弯时,帮助控制重量转移到车头,使前轮有更大的附着力。如果不循迹刹车,车辆可能会出现转向不足,而循迹刹车能够补偿这一点。相反的做法是:在直线上全力刹车,然后全部释放刹车,再转向。这种技术的问题在于:当你释放刹车时,前轮承受的重量(也就是轮胎的附着力)会在你需要有足够附着力转向的时候被移走。所以,除非车辆被设计成按照这种方式驾驶,它将在弯角出现转向不足。在街车被改装成赛车时,转向不足是经常出现的情况。

On the other hand, a ‘proper’ race car will probably oversteer if you don’t trail brake. If you turn into a corner with your feet off both brake and throttle, the front tyres will have all their traction budget available for turning while the back wheels will be doing some (engine) braking. Net result: oversteer. Application of the brakes settles down the oversteer by substituting a proportionately balanced loss of steering traction (because the brakes are biased towards the front). In fact, you use the brake pressure to control the rate at which the car rotates into the corner.
另一方面,一辆真正的赛车在你不使用循迹刹车时很可能出现转向过度。如果你在进入弯角时同时松开刹车和油门,前轮全部用来转向,而后轮正在刹车(引擎制动),结果就是:转向过度。刹车能够通过适当地补偿轮胎附着力在平衡性方面的损失,解决转向过度的问题(因为刹车是偏向于前轮的)。事实上,你是通过刹车的力度来控制车辆进弯的速度的。
译者注:以上两段就是FZ5和RA比XRT更难开的主要原因之一吧。

How much trail braking you do at a particular corner - i.e. what percentage of the corner is taken under braking - depends on the angle of the corner. For a 60° corner, you’d typically only trail for a few percent of the corner, for a 90° corner, you’d typically trail brake for maybe 25% of the corner, and for a bigger corner, you could do it for up to 50% of the corner. You are aiming to trail off the brakes until they are released completely at or before the throttle application point (which typically occurs somewhere before the geometric apex). - Thanks to the Virtual Racers Edge Site for this helpful info.
在某个弯角,你应该施加多少循迹刹车?一个弯角的百分之几中应该运用循迹刹车?
这些取决于弯角的角度。对于一个60度的弯,你通常只需要在弯道的n%(n是个位数)中运用一点循迹刹车。对于一个90度的弯,你通常需要在弯道的25%范围内运用。对于一个大的弯角,你也许要在弯道的50%范围内运用。你的目标是逐渐释放刹车,在送油点之前或是正好在送油点上完全释放刹车(送油点通常在弯道的几何弯心之前)。

Threshold Braking
极限刹车

Think of the contact patch of your tyres. The few square inches that each tyre touches the road with may be upset not only by rapid steering input but by rapid brake input as well. ABS minimizes this, but there is a way that a good driver can shorten stopping distances even beyond ABS in some cases. How?
考虑一下轮胎的接触面。每个轮胎接触地面的面积只有几平方英寸,突然的转向或者刹车都会影响到这种接触。ABS刹车使这种影响最小化。但是好的车手可以在某些情况下用别的方法缩短刹车距离,达到超越ABS的表现。怎么做到呢?

ABS works in different ways, but to illustrate this point, I’ll take an example of, say, a Subaru Outback with four people in the car on a snowy surface (this may be easier to visualize given a heavier car on a slick day): You begin a panic stop, depressing the brake. The car goes up to maximum braking, and then one wheel begins to slide or lock. As it does so, the car momentarily pulses the pedal back to you, which feels like a “burp” under your foot. In doing so, it allows that locked wheel to again rotate. This helps in two ways. First, a tyre brakes most efficiently when it is just short of locking up, exerting the maximum effort on the surface. When it goes beyond that point and slides, braking is diminished. Second, by keeping the wheels from locking up, ABS helps maintain directional control, especially if the driver is steering around an obstacle while braking. In effect, in a panic stop ABS allows the driver to pound the brakes as hard as he or she wishes, but still have effective braking and directional control. Remember that a tyre gets maximum braking just before the point of lockup. Without ABS a driver can get maximum braking effort by braking to the point of wheel lock, and then reducing the pressure ever so slightly to the point where the wheels are rotating again. This is known as “threshold braking.” The dangers of course are in backing off a bit too much and not getting maximum effort, and in maintaining directional control while braking.
ABS有不同的运作方式。为了说明它,我举一个例子:一辆载有4名乘客的Subaru牌Outback车行驶在冰雪路面。你突然急刹车,猛踩刹车踏板。车辆达到最大刹车力度,然后一个车轮打滑或者锁死。这时候,刹车踏板立即回弹向你的脚,感觉如同脚下打了一个嗝。此时锁死的车轮恢复了转动。这种做法在两个方面有所帮助。第一,刹车时,轮胎处于接近锁死状态时效率最高,能够发挥轮胎表面的最大能力。一旦锁死并滑动,刹车能力就减弱了。第二,ABS通过保持轮胎的转动来维持对方向的控制。这对于车手在转向的同时做出刹车特别有帮助。ABS允许车手在急刹车时踩死刹车踏板,仍然能够有效的刹车并控制方向。
记住轮胎处于接近锁死状态时刹车效率最高,在没有ABS时,车手可以刹到刚刚锁死的临界点来达到最大的刹车效果,然后微微减少刹车力度让轮胎恢复转动。这就是极限刹车。这样做的危险在于释放刹车力度过多,没有达到最大的刹车效果,以及刹车的时候如何保持方向的控制。

Back now to an ABS equipped car: By using threshold braking, it is even possible in some cases to do better than ABS. Remember the pulsing action that some ABS systems use to allow the locked wheel to rotate again? While this is happening, the braking effort on the other three wheels is momentarily lessened also. On a slick snowy surface, if you continue extreme hard braking so that ABS is constantly activated, the lessened brake force is extremely evident. It almost feels as though the car starts sliding faster! If this happens to you, back off slightly to allow the ABS to disengage, and use threshold braking ... release ever so slightly as the ABS starts to “burp” back at your foot. A well executed stop will have you riding that edge, with ABS intermittently engaging as you modulate and keep feeling that threshold. On DRY pavement with good traction, you can stand on the pedal as much as you need to stop quickly and effectively.
现在回到一辆装备有ABS系统的车上。通过运用极限刹车,在某些情况下我们能够比ABS做得更好。记得ABS为了让某个锁死的轮胎恢复转动而回弹刹车踏板的动作么?这样做的时候,其它三个轮胎的刹车效果也被减弱了。在湿滑的冰雪路面,如果你一直踩死刹车,ABS持续工作,那么刹车力度的减小是很明显的。那感觉几乎是:车子似乎滑行得更快了!在此情况下,应该稍稍放松刹车,让ABS停止工作,使用极限刹车。只放松那么一点点刹车,让ABS刚刚开始工作。处理得很好的刹车将使你在极限边缘行驶,当你调整并感受极限时,ABS只是间歇性的介入。在拥有良好抓地力的干燥路面上,你可以用这种方式快速有效地刹车。



[ 本帖最后由 visualff 于 2006-12-20 11:32 编辑 ]

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 16:19:12 | 显示全部楼层
这个要顶。。。。。。好东西。。。。支持
车神之路,由此起步——SRFC模拟赛车网

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 16:28:51 | 显示全部楼层
干吗要占三层楼的位?在一楼补充就是了.............晕
DRAGON88

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 16:29:13 | 显示全部楼层
loooooooooooooooooooook!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
ARIA.The.ANIMATION
ARIA.The.NATURAL
ARIA.The.ORIGINATION
ARIA.The.ARIETTA

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LFS初级驾照

 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-19 16:33:35 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 狂龍 于 2006-12-19 16:28 发表
干吗要占三层楼的位?在一楼补充就是了.............晕

太长了,分别编辑方便一点吧。
另外,沙发板凳,肥水不流外人田啊[9.gif]。

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 16:40:25 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 visualff 于 2006-12-19 16:33 发表

太长了,分别编辑方便一点吧。
另外,沙发板凳,肥水不流外人田啊。

好过分!![1.gif][1.gif][1.gif]
ARIA.The.ANIMATION
ARIA.The.NATURAL
ARIA.The.ORIGINATION
ARIA.The.ARIETTA

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版主

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 16:58:15 | 显示全部楼层
辛苦了顶一个。。。。。。。

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SRFC第一退赛王子...

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 17:04:38 | 显示全部楼层
绝世好帖~~~~~~~~
SRFC第一墙壁杀手

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 17:30:47 | 显示全部楼层
搂主泄漏考题~~~~~~~~

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LFS初级驾照

 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-19 17:39:04 | 显示全部楼层
我只是泄漏普通适用型教材,这也是每个学校都在做的事情啊。至少要看一遍才会做题吧。但愿没有和以前别人发过的重复。
第一个精华呀,哈哈。

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 17:58:08 | 显示全部楼层
好贴子啊~~~~~~~~~~~~~[5.gif][5.gif][5.gif][5.gif]






奖励JJ一个[9.gif][9.gif][9.gif]
当你想不通的时候,想一下自己是在中国,一切就豁然开朗了.....

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 18:01:49 | 显示全部楼层
文中提到的速度分析器哪有啊?????????
ARIA.The.ANIMATION
ARIA.The.NATURAL
ARIA.The.ORIGINATION
ARIA.The.ARIETTA

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永远的欧文

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LFS初级驾照

发表于 2006-12-19 18:15:47 | 显示全部楼层
这么好的帖子没人顶吗???建议都看看啊~~`
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